Sometimes story ideas originate from the strangest of places. Back in November, 2016, Robert Abbasi, president of RTI Properties in Gardena, California, asked us if we could help him post a job listing at his company that was looking for a motorcycle courier. We happily obliged, not thinking much of it (and, as it turns out, it was through our post that Abbasi found the candidate he was looking for – Enrique Villegas and his Kawasaki KZ1000, a former police bike).

Fast forward a few months later and the crew of MOrons is brainstorming a way to test Zero’s latest model: the Zero DS ZF6.5. It, along with its Zero S ZF6.5 sibling, represent the most affordable way to enter the Zero S/DS family, though it’s still a tad pricey at $10,995 (before rebates). As you might have deduced based on the name, the 6.5 is able to slide lower down the cost scale in Zero’s lineup due to its smaller battery. Using only half the battery packs inside the sealed monolith as its ZF13.0 bigger brother, the 6.5 sees max range reduced to a claimed 81 miles city (versus 161 city miles for the ZF13.0), and 54 miles of 70-mph highway riding.

Visually, the Zero DS ZF6.5 looks like any other Zero DS – longer travel suspension, knobby-ish tires, etc. However, the DS ZF6.5 is the least expensive entry to the Zero S/DS family thanks to its smaller battery.

Visually, the Zero DS ZF6.5 looks like any other Zero DS – longer travel suspension, knobby-ish tires, etc. However, the DS ZF6.5 is the least expensive entry to the Zero S/DS family thanks to its smaller battery.

However, what the DS6.5 gives up in range it makes up for in lightness, weighing in at 313 lbs full of electricity – that’s a whopping 95 lbs lighter than the ZF13.0. Also, with the extra battery packs removed, the space it formerly occupied is now a lockable storage compartment, big enough to carry a sacked lunch or even a set of gym clothes, if a lunchtime workout is your thing.

We prefer to eat during lunch instead of pump iron, but the extra storage compartment was what got us thinking back to Abbasi. In his job posting, there’s a mention of serving notices and performing inspections at property sites. Doing such would likely entail carrying documents – documents that would fit inside the Zero’s new storage compartment.

Using only half the batteries as its ZF13.0 sibling, the extra real estate freed up by the lack of batteries has created a sealed, lockable storage compartment. It also has the added benefit of reducing the Zero’s price while shaving off a cool 95 lbs compared to the ZF13.0.

Using only half the batteries as its ZF13.0 sibling, the extra real estate freed up by the lack of batteries has created a sealed, lockable storage compartment. It also has the added benefit of reducing the Zero’s price while shaving off a cool 95 lbs compared to the ZF13.0.

When it comes to testing electric motorcycles, it can be pretty difficult coming up with original ideas. We’ve done all the standard road tests one can do, many times on a Zero. But those were all done on the high-end versions of the model lineup. This time around we’re dealing with the Zero on the other end of the price spectrum, looking for a task outside the box to put it to the test – and unfortunately, we’ve already used up the excuse of finding the best veggie burritos in Los Angeles

2016 Zero DSR First Ride Review

The next best answer, then, was to put the DS ZF6.5 to work, real work, serving notices and inspecting job sites for, you guessed it, Robert Abbasi and his company RTI Properties. Abbasi was excited about the idea, too, as his business tries to operate as eco-friendly as possible – much of the workplace is paperless (except for physical notices, of course), and the idea of an electric motorcycle fit perfectly with the eco-friendly theme while performing the job of motorcycle courier. It doesn’t hurt that he is an avid motorcycle fan, too, with several bikes in his garage.

A motorcycle meant for courier duty isn’t complete without a top case, so we added Zero’s accessory Givi Top Case. With a capacity of 34 liters, there’s more than enough space for a full-face helmet.

A motorcycle meant for courier duty isn’t complete without a top case, so we added Zero’s accessory Givi Top Case. With a capacity of 34 liters, there’s more than enough space for a full-face helmet.

The Job

For this test, Abbasi put together a route consisting of five job sites needing to be visited. Abbasi’s office would serve as the start and end point, and in total the route would consist of 41 miles, not including a lunch stop. Since the DS 6.5 has enough range for anywhere from 54 to 81 miles, says Zero, we figured it would be perfectly suited for this task. Our particular test bike was outfitted with Zero’s optional Charge Tank accessory ($1,995), which outfits the bike with a Level II J1772 adapter to be used at most electric vehicle charging stations throughout the country, and can recharge a completely drained battery in two hours. And in the interest of true courier duty, we also decided to add an accessory top case ($400) just in case we had to haul around bigger items.

To be clear: These were real tasks needing completion, not a staged route put together just for the sake of this story. Because of this, and since I’m not at all certified (or qualified!) to serve notices or inspect property sites, both Abbasi and Villegas escorted me along the ride.

The plan was simple: complete the first two tasks, grab lunch while letting the bike recharge, then finish off the rest of the items on Abbasi’s list. Should be simple, right? Of course, things rarely go as smoothly as we hope at MO

This is the view from Robert Abbasi’s office, looking down on his white Ducati Multistrada, which is one of several motorcycles in the Abbasi garage. He had never sampled an electric motorcycle before, and this experiment was eye-opening for him.

This is the view from Robert Abbasi’s office, looking down on his white Ducati Multistrada, which is one of several motorcycles in the Abbasi garage. He had never sampled an electric motorcycle before, and this experiment was eye-opening for him.

Get To Work

To make this test as realistic as possible, I decided to ride the Zero (and not truck it) the 35 miles from my home to Abbasi’s office. Almost immediately an issue with being an e-courier in Los Angeles came to light – freeways. You can’t go anywhere in L.A. without hopping on the freeway, and a highway drone for miles on end is an electric’s worst nightmare. Nonetheless, the challenge was already on, and there was no turning back. As morning traffic came swarming past me on the freeway, I made sure to keep the Zero in Eco mode, which caps speed at 70 mph, and did my best to stay out of everyone’s way.

Using the free Chargepoint app, a cafe with a Level II charger was located less than a mile from Abbasi’s office, providing an ideal spot to take a small break and let the bike recharge – for just one dollar an hour. But here we experienced another problem: the 35-mile freeway jaunt left just 33% charge left, according to the Zero’s battery display on the dash. Range anxiety was starting to set in…

Freeway riding is the enemy of range, as the constant call for electricity quickly drains batteries. But hopping on the freeway is simply a way of life for Los Angeles-area couriers.

Freeway riding is the enemy of range, as the constant call for electricity quickly drains batteries. But hopping on the freeway is simply a way of life for Los Angeles-area couriers.

With only 20 minutes to charge before needing to meet Abbasi, the DS 6.5 now stood at 57%. This without even completing a single task yet. After meeting Abbasi and Villegas, checking out their respective Ducati Multistrada and Kawasaki KZ1000, and getting a brief overview of the day’s work, we were off. The first stop was only 11 miles later, but it was mostly on the freeway. Not the place we wanted to be to conserve energy.

2016 Zero FXS First Ride Review

Nonetheless, we arrived to our first task: inspecting a pool at an apartment complex RTI manages. No extra equipment was needed, so the Zero wasn’t unnecessarily weighted down. In fact, for the entirety of the day the only extras needed were a few pieces of paper announcing a future inspection or serving a notice. So extra weight was kept to a minimum.

Abbasi (left) in his element, inspecting one of his properties while wearing his motorcycle jacket.

Abbasi (left) in his element, inspecting one of his properties while wearing his motorcycle jacket.

Turns out the pool only needed a very minor fix, which a contractor remedied within a few hours. Meanwhile, it was on to the second stop only a mile away. Obviously, such short distance meant we could be a little more liberal with the e-throttle, which is where Abbasi got to experience the rush of electric acceleration for the first time. Intoxicating, yes, he said, but a mile is hardly enough distance to understand an electric.

Having spent more time on electrics than Abbasi, I can tell you the baby DS, in sport mode, accelerates like any other bike in the Zero line except for the SR and DSR – that is, with neck-pulling alacrity. Part of that is due to the lighter weight, but a more significant factor is the more powerful motor seen on the S/DS platform for 2017 – now rated at 550 amps compared to 420 amps before (R models also get upgraded motors – up to 775 amps from 660).

Ergonomically, the DS feels as it always has; upright, with a relaxed knee bend and gentle reach to the bars. Its seat is perfect for a courier, that is to say its cushioning will encourage you to get off and make a delivery somewhere between 20 and 50 miles into a ride.

The second stop included an inspection of a property to make sure it was up to snuff, and from there it was on to lunch. We decided to head back to the same cafe I stopped at in the morning, as it was in the direction we needed to travel for the other three stops. However, on the 12-mile ride to the charging station, Abbasi got a first-hand taste of range anxiety in its purest form – the Zero’s battery meter eventually dropped down to zero, pun not intended. We rode another two miles or so with the meter flashing wildly for us to find a charger, and to its credit, the DS made it back to the charge station under its own power, though its pessimistic gauge display added a bit of undue stress to its rider.

Abbasi’s stress levels were high as he rode the DS several miles with the battery gauge flashing 00%. Fortunately, he was able to ride the Zero to this charging station under its own power.

Abbasi’s stress levels were high as he rode the DS several miles with the battery gauge flashing 00%. Fortunately, he was able to ride the Zero to this charging station under its own power.

With the J1772 charger doing its thing, we did our thing and got a bite to eat. Meanwhile, Abbasi and Villegas shared their initial thoughts about the Zero. First and foremost is the added stress that comes from the battery gauge rapidly depleting. Freeway riding is a staple of life for the L.A. courier, and to use up energy so quickly riding normally on the freeway is stressful, to say the least. Keep in mind, too, that our route on this day was less than half what Villegas normally does. He tells me he can make up to 12 stops in a day, covering 120 miles or more, stopping only for gas or a (quick) bite to eat. Nearly all of those miles are on the freeway, and sometimes past the posted speed limit (this is L.A. after all).

2016 Zero DSR 10th-Anniversary Edition Review

As it stood, we were already waiting at our lunch stop for 60 minutes. The Zero was back up to 45% (indicated), but with three more stops to make (four, including the RTI office at the end) and 29 miles left to cover, plus another 35 miles back home, we decided to wait longer, at least until 80%. Another 30 minutes later and the DS was reading 63%. Shocked and slightly disappointed, we decided we couldn’t wait any longer and were going to make the push to finish out the rest of the day. Then, in the 15 minutes it took for us to finish talking, do some filming, and put our gear on, the Zero’s battery meter jumped from 63% straight to 95%, before moments later it read a full 100%. Weird.

Our tester also came equipped with the optional Charge Tank, which allows the Zero to charge using the same J1772 charging unit used on most electric cars. With it, our completely drained DS ZF6.5 reached a full tank in under two hours. While that’s impressive in comparison to the eight-plus hours it would take to recharge to 100% from a standard wall outlet, two hours is still a long time to wait when you have somewhere else to be.

Our tester also came equipped with the optional Charge Tank, which allows the Zero to charge using the same J1772 charging unit used on most electric cars. With it, our completely drained DS ZF6.5 reached a full tank in under two hours. While that’s impressive in comparison to the eight-plus hours it would take to recharge to 100% from a standard wall outlet, two hours is still a long time to wait when you have somewhere else to be.

With a full tank of, uh, electricity, the remaining 29 miles we needed to cover was a breeze. In the interest of riding like a real courier, the DS was deliberately kept in Sport mode so I could keep with Villegas on his clapped-out cop bike and with Abbasi on his pristine Ducati Multistrada. The next two stops were rather mundane. More inspections and an overview of some major plumbing work going on in a complex. However, the third and final stop had potential – posting a notice on a tenant’s door informing them they could be evicted if they don’t start paying rent. It was starting to feel like a reality show with a twist waiting for us if the tenant wasn’t happy with the potential eviction notice – and if things were to get physical, I knew the Zero’s acceleration would make for the perfect getaway vehicle.

Alas, the tenant wasn’t home.

Believe it or not, Abbasi says most times he or one of his staff have to meet with tenants, the encounters are usually positive, like this one.

Believe it or not, Abbasi says most times he or one of his staff have to meet with tenants, the encounters are usually positive, like this one.

The Best Laid Plans…

At the end of our time with Abbasi and Villegas, the Zero DS ZF6.5 covered the 41 miles, impressing us with its acceleration and storage capacity. The lack of noise was seen as both an advantage and disadvantage to Abbasi, as the element of stealth is favorable when he decides to perform an unscheduled inspection, but not so when splitting lanes on the highway.

Speaking of which, the highway proved to be a bigger energy suck than we expected. Sure, if we had started our route with a full battery, then the five tasks would have been completed much quicker, but let’s not forget that Villegas, or others like him, would have a hard time completing 12 stops and 120 miles around the greater Los Angeles area – even with Zero’s ZF13.0 variant of the S or DS.

Living With A Zero SR

One possible solution would be if Abbasi, or any other business owner, kept a fleet of fully-charged vehicles at the ready. Even then, range anxiety and recharge times while out in the field could amount to the Zero being not quite ready for courier duty – but it’s close. More importantly, couriers won’t always have the option of returning to base to grab a recharged bike; they’ll get their route in the morning and won’t return until the end of the day.

For general commuting duties, any Zero is more than capable of doing the job. However, we found the distinct demands of courier duty, at least in the greater Los Angeles area, are not quite suited for an electric. At least not yet.

For general commuting duties, any Zero is more than capable of doing the job. However, we found the distinct demands of courier duty, at least in the greater Los Angeles area, are not quite suited for an electric. At least not yet.

As it stood, after completing the 29 miles after lunch, the DS’s battery was down to 45% – not enough to get me the 35 miles home. A half-hour top-off got me back to 100%, of which I used 96% to get me home at normal SoCal freeway speeds, leaving only 4% left as I pulled into my driveway. Plugging into my 110v wall outlet, the Zero’s display estimated it would take four hours and 18 minutes to recharge fully. I went to bed and saw a fully charged battery the next morning.

This was an eye-opening experience, as we thought the Zero DS ZF6.5 would be the perfect tool for this job, only to be proven wrong. However, Abbasi and Villegas agreed that a motorcycle like the Zero would be much better suited to electric courier duty in a city like New York, Chicago, or even San Francisco, cities far less expansive than Los Angeles, where constant throttle at high speed is the exception, not the rule.

Interestingly, Abbasi doesn’t automatically consider the Zero’s price as a negative. “For me, the cost of the motorcycle is just one factor in the overall decision,” he said. “As a business owner, I need to look at the ROI – will it save me money in the long run? Maybe. Maintenance is less expensive [than a gas bike], and so is electricity. But for now, the stress is just too great.”

  • Gruf Rude

    Out here in the intermountain west, the lack of range and charging stations mean, “No sale.” It’s just a big zero.

    • Sayyed Bashir

      Not for me either. Freeway speeds here are 85 mph. How fast does the battery go down at 85 mph? Cannot charge at apartment, but plenty of charging stations near work.

  • Ian Parkes

    Congrats. I think this test that proved this is a great idea for most cities, just not the one covering nearly 5000 square miles, laced together with freeways. When you said bike courier, the picture that came to my mind was bikes in stop and go traffic. Perfect for torquey, zero emission electrics. And even in LA maybe the bike with the bigger battery would have worked.

    • Robert Abbasi

      Yes, it would be a great bike for dense urban areas, zipping through traffic and getting many tasks done. Not having a clutch is a big benefit in this situation, just turn the throttle and go. One would still have to look at the economics of an electric bike versus a gasoline powered bike but my gut is it would work in dense urban areas.

  • kenneth_moore

    The price of the Charge Tank acccessory was a surprise. 20% of the cost of the bike ($1,995) for a receptacle and some circuits seems awfully expensive. Even if that price fairly reflects what it costs Zero to make and sell it, there’s something wrong here.

    It seems to me we need to standardize charging infrastructure, and put the expensive parts of it at the chargers, where they’ll be used continuously, rather than on the bike where they’re only used occasionally. Imagine if car makers had to build a gas pump, hose, cutoff nozzle, and safety components into every car. Of course we don’t do that; I can drive or ride virtually any vehicle up to a gas station and know all I need to “recharge” my gas tank is the key to unlock it’s cap. Electric vehicles need to work the same way.

    • Sayyed Bashir

      There has to be some intelligence on the bike side, not just a dumb battery, so it can tell the charging station about itself, since the charging station has to deal with a myriad of different sized vehicles. Also ongoing communication is needed as the battery is getting charged. Some other costs are the specialized connector and J1772 interface needed for a Level 2 charging station. Probably also includes the dealer installation that is required.

  • jeff benson

    Another failure for lithium batteries and people still think it’s a viable solution. There needs to be a quantum leap in electrical energy storage or these things will simply remain heavily subsidized edsels. It’s good for moochers like Musk and the others on the taxpayer’s dime. Not so good for the rest of us.

    • kenneth_moore

      “Tesla Tops Ford in Market Cap After Best-Ever Sales Quarter”
      http://www.foxbusiness.com/markets/2017/04/03/tesla-tops-ford-in-market-cap-after-best-ever-sales-quarter.html
      “Tesla’s latest sales numbers helped boost its market value to around $47.79 billion, as of 1:40 p.m. ET, toppling Ford for the number two slot just under General Motors (GM), which holds a market capitalization of $50.9 billion. The electric car maker rallied to above $294 a share after the company on Sunday said it saw a 69% surge in sales in the first three months of the year – its best quarterly performance ever. On Monday, Ford said its March sales dropped 24% due in large part to comparable figures from 2016 that included large fleet sales. The automaker said SUV sales slipped 3%, while truck sales rose 2.5% during the month.”

      Not a bad result for a “failed technology.” BTW: the government isn’t buying that stock.

      • RyYYZ

        How many cars did they actually sell?
        How much profit did they actually make?
        The stock price is largely speculative, IMO, and yet to be supported by actual profit-making ability.

      • therr850

        There are a lot of questions about that. They continually miss deadlines and don’t consistently show profit. There are many people questioning when will their backers start getting returns on their investments.

        For the sake of this artical let’s just compare internal combustion to e-bikes for the job example in this artical. E-bikes have their place but LA probably isn’t it at this time.

      • jeff benson

        Lol! Your company would do well too if it were being handed giant truckloads of cash by the Feds.

        I’m pretty sure you know nothing about the actual physics of chemical batteries. No technology has ever had as much money sunk in it to such little gain as electric vehicles. You can wish that there is some magical new battery breakthrough that will solve everything. There’s nothing like that in the works or even theoretically possible. Not to mention the fact that there’s not enough lithium in the world to replace the internal combustion engine.

        Then there’s the inevitable environmental effects of so much lithium getting into the biosphere which no one has a clue about.

        But don’t let facts get in the way of a good dream. Just throw money (other people’s of course) at it.

        • kenneth_moore

          So let’s look at the facts from a recent article on an investment site titled: “This Is How Little Government Support Tesla Motors Actually Receives”
          “The electric-car maker receives virtually no direct support from state or federal governments. One of the most prominent criticisms of Tesla (NASDAQ:TSLA) is the idea that the company relies heavily on government subsidies, incentives, and other forms of support. This is a common bearish argument, since it stands to reason that those incentives will eventually be phased out. Once that happens, Tesla is doomed, according to the bears.

          But Tesla doesn’t actually receive much direct support from the government.

          At Tesla’s annual shareholder meeting last week, the company pointed out how little it has received from state and federal governments over the years. The vast majority of Tesla’s funding has come from growing revenue and external capital raises from investors.”

          I hope you’re still posting on MO when BMW, Mercedes, and virtually every other major car maker is selling electric cars as they try to catch up with Tesla, which both of them have stated they’re working on now. 2-3 years should be all it takes for that to happen.

          • Johnny Blue

            I don’t know how’s in the USA, but in the Netherlands the electric vehicles are heavily subsidized while gas and especially diesel cars are heavily taxed. Tesla might not receive money from the government, but when the buyer saves thousands of euros in taxes and upfront upon buying such vehicle, it can be considered as a subsidy offered to Tesla, or any other manufacturer of electric vehicles. Basically it reduces the cost of the car so it has a higher chance of being purchased.
            And of course jeff benson is right when saying there’s not enough lithium in the world to replace all fossil fuel vehicles. And digging for all that lithium will create environmental catastrophes (but who cares since they’re not obvious, being far away from where the electric cars will be used).
            So until the storage of electricity is much improved the use of electric cars will be limited, regardless of how well Tesla is doing and apparently they’ll not turn a profit anytime soon (https://www.fool.com/investing/2017/05/04/why-tesla-inc-is-down-today.aspx).

  • MyName

    Stay tuned for: ” Is a cruiser good for motocross?”

  • Paul Russell Laverack

    I don’t know how many more stories Troy has left in the pipeline, but this one is an excellent way to finish a solid run as a moto-journalist. It is highly readable and informative. Good work. You will be missed, Troy. (You seemed to be the MOron with the most interest in e-bikes, which this reader always appreciated.) Best of luck in your next chapter.

  • blansky

    I’m still trying to figure out why it’s not possible to charge the battery from the motion of the vehicle in some way. If I could I guess I’d be wealthy.

    • Sayyed Bashir

      The motion is being produced by the battery. If you add a DC generator to charge the battery, the battery will have to do more work. There is no free lunch. But you could add solar cells to the fairing which will charge the battery while the bike is parked away from a charging station. You can also add pedals so you could assist the bike in slower traffic. A sail would help if the wind was blowing the way you are going.

      • blansky

        I get that but still.

        Not sure if you’re old enough but remember as kids on our bicycles we powered our headlights by placing a generator against the tire to power the light. It didn’t seem to take any extra leg power to do that. It seems to me that there should be a way to use the wheels as a generator in some way, or even use the power of the wind to turn small generators. We all know the power of the wind from riding motorcycles, so why not harness that to charge the batteries.

        We should be smart enough to figure a way to charge the vehicle as it moves so the batteries are only needed to start and move the vehicle at low speeds, and as you say solar could charge enough for that.

        • Johnny Blue

          I remember that small generator against the bicycle tire. It really robbed me of a lot of muscle power.
          It is not possible to use a generator to recharge the battery from its own power. If you can create that you’d creat a “perpetuum mobile”. Since that violates the laws of thermodynamics it’s an impossibility. You have to be God to create such thing. In our universe there’s no efficiency equal, or greater than 100%.
          That being said, the ‘wheel generators’ are used in cars for regenerative braking. But that just converts part of the momentum back into electricity instead of wasting it into heat via brake disks.
          And I don’t know much about solar panels, but I think they’re not really good for the job. You’d need a much larger surface than the motorcycle can offer. And it would not work at night and would be very poor during cloudy days.
          Also, this test has been performed in warm climate. When it’s cold, the batteries deplete quicker.
          Our best hope, for now, is really improving the battery technology to make it charge faster. And without bursting into flames. 🙂

    • MyName

      100% of the energy from the battery would have to go back into the battery. Unfortunately, much is “robbed” by friction, heat, air resistance, etc.

  • Warp

    The Biggest mistake made in recent memory by Zero is their discontinuation of the CHAdeMO option. Their justification for this is that CHAdeMO allows for low-voltage charging in the standard but not all chargers complied with this level of the standard as cars typically operate their battery charge levels at higher voltages. There was one major charger vendor that had done this, and that vendor was, at the time, one of the most deployed along the West coast (Aerovironment). The landscape has changed drastically. Zero should reintroduce the CHAdeMO option and simply include a list of vendors to avoid.

  • blueson2wheels

    I could have saved you the trouble and told you that, absolutely, EVs will be terrible at a task like courier service that is unpredictable and changes from day to day.
    How about an article in which someone commutes to work and runs associated errands for a month, without any problems or worries, and finds it so easy that they stop even thinking about what they are riding? What a boring article, right? EVs are good at making transportation virtually transparent. It’s not exciting, it just works.

  • c w

    I skipped to the end of this because I was suspicious of the conclusion – it was what I suspected.

    I did delivery work for a while in NYC. There were a few types of vehicles that worked, but they were dependent upon the circumstances.

    Bicycles/scooters/skateboards were pretty flexible and the best ways to fight traffic. The less vehicle you had, the better you could get around unexpected delays. These worked best during the day when most jobs were small and typically short distance. Parking also was not an issue.

    Small cars worked well on nights and particularly weekends. After work, there was a higher likelihood for a large order of food, shopping or packages. They also were more likely to have origins farther away from the respective destinations. Given the reduced traffic, there were less problems congestion and it is much easier to park.

    I thought that by using my motorcycle, I’d be combining the some advantages of a car (range, speed, cargo space) with those of a bike (traffic evasion, reduced fuel cost, cool factor). In fact, the motorcycle combined the DISadvantages of the two (parking, adherence to traffic rules, others).

    So, knowing that and the current range of a e-motorcycle, I wouldn’t use it for courier duty – but I *would* use it for company-owned courier service. If a company has many smaller pickups/drops to make, an e-bike could make sense if the bike is returning to home base regularly between runs. That way it could top off while sitting and reduce problems with range. For instance, you’ll notice in NYC that many restaurants doing food delivery have riders going out on e-bicycles. They have enough charge to do the 4 drops they can handle that will be limited to the already limited radius that restaurant will delivery to and then return to be plugged in.

    A biz in a more sprawling city might be able to benefit e-motos if they had similar logistics.

    Even then, most of those would probably be better off with small e-cars that had space both for more energy storage and cargo storage…